RATTAN AND WOOD FURNITURE INDUSTRY JOINT DESIGN TRAINING: Design Enhancement of Malaysia School Furniture.

Citation:

Abdullah Al Rashid Ab. Hamid., Junaidy, D.W., Nor Hamizah Abdul Hamid, Muhamad Ezran Zainal Abdullah, Mohd Firuz Mohd Anwar, Mohd Firdaus Mohd Herrow. (2017). Rattan and Wood Furniture Industry Joint Design Training: Design Enhancement of Malaysia School Furniture. In Abstract of 4th National Conference on Knowledge Transfer (NCKT’17), 11-12 Dec, 2017, Kedah

Abstract
We have conducted five design training throughout a series of rattan design training in line with Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) under the National Strategic Higher Learning Plan established in accordance to University-Industry Partnership. Its aim is to promote a closer partnership between the academia and industry. We bring together a local wooden furniture manufacturer that has been continuously producing wooden school furniture set and a local rattan furniture producer to re-enhance the use of material on the school desk and chair for elementary school. The result shows a lighter volume, material efficiency, convenient and visually attractive appearance of rattan-wooden school desk and chair. This joint design training would allow interdependence for both party to exchange skills/expertise and materials that might sustain their production in the future.  

Keywords: school furniture, rattan-wooden furniture, knowledge transfer program, design enhancement.

1. A learning from previous design training

Previously, we have conducted a series of design training to promote the transfer of knowledge through the exchange of creative and innovative ideas between some local rattan furniture industries in Kelantan, Malaysia. All five-consecutive training are as follows

1st workshop: The past, present, and future of rattan design across the world.

2nd workshop: Theory and knowledge of utilizing characteristics of rattan material.

3rd workshop: Advance detail mock-up making

4th workshop: Rattan-Wooden School Furniture Design

5th workshop: Prototyping of Rattan-Wooden School Furniture Design

Throughout the design training session, specifically after the 3rd workshop, we realized the difficulty to attract the involvement of rattan industry players. This may due to the lack of understanding of how design can be a perfect medium to boost up rattan industries in this nation. On the other hand, the local rattan craftsman is reluctant to propose a new style and design because they commonly do copying designs from the Internet. After a thorough review, the main problems are:

    1. The reluctance to change and to try new design and method.
    2. Market uncertainties.

     

    Furthermore, these rattan workshop has shown a possibility of combining the material element in the school furniture design. Mixed materials may become the essence to enhance the value of the product. However, a wood material should become the most prominent material element due to Malaysian social factor and local geographical landscape.

    The 4th workshop was held from 24th of May 2017 to 26th May 2017 in University Malaysia Kelantan. Two industries involved in the workshop were Mega Rotan Deco and Nik Lah Industri. All industry participants had previously participated in the basic design training module. They were then given a task to choose one type of furniture to be developed using their own business nature strength. Mega Rotan Deco chose Cane Sofa as their subject and Nik Lah Industri chose a school study furniture. The objective of this task is to bring up the demand and quality of their selected products through a design enhancement perspective. On the other hand, the new design should have the possibility of penetrating the global market. 

    2. Literature in school furniture design & design training delivery

    Design methodology implemented in the 4th and 5th design training programmes is in line with the characteristics of the conceptual ideation process of master craft persons to inform design education (Junaidy, et. al. 2013; Junaidy, et. al., 2015; Sriwarno, 2009). Involvement of rattan furniture producers as the participant is based on our analysis of lack of willingness of the participants to join the training. Therefore, it requires a challenge for rattan furniture producers to be sure that they will have a direct benefit to the training given. In this case, we recommended that the wooden furniture industry manufacturer is involved in the training so that both may exchange skills/expertise and materials that might sustain their production in the future and benefit each other (Abdullah, et. al., 2016). The knowledge that delivered includes the ergonomics of school furniture for elementary school (Afzan, 2012; Rosyidi, 2014).

    1. Rattan-Wooden School Furniture Design

    This workshop reiterated that rattan can revolutionize furniture design through the reduction on the amounts of weight, design form that is organic, and stronger compared to wood furniture. Implementation of new rattan working techniques has been shared throughout the workshop that includes the effective rattan manufacturing process. A highly skilled craftsman was invited to demonstrate the best solution on working with the rattan. We divided theevent of rattan-wooden school furniture design training/workshop into two sessions.

    1. The 4th Workshop of Design ideation to 1:5 model making
      1. Theory of seating facility, ergonomic and anthropometric of school furniture.
      2. Design ideation and development.
      3. 1:5 scale prototyping

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 2.54.48 PM

Figure 1a. Design ideation

 Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 2.55.19 PM

Figure 1b. Design ideation

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Figure 1c. 1:5 scale model making

The 5th workshop of 1:1 prototyping

With complete documents of technical drawing and 1:5 scale model making, we then held a workshop on making the 1:1 prototyping. Here, we introduced the application of some pitriet /pulur /core weaving to some parts of the desk and chair. However, we make sure that there is no rattan bending application in this case. This is to ensure that there would be no extra cost incurred in the process of enhancement. Basically, we removed some structures of the wood and replaced the structure with rattan application of cane structure or weaving. It means that any rattan material application in this enhancement is intended as a substitution, not as an addition. This will maintain the price to be pegged at the same level.

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Figure 2a. Existing product of school furniture set

 Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 3.01.54 PM

Figure 2b. Re-measurement

 Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 3.02.48 PM

Figure 2c. The new model of rattan wicker wooden school furniture design for elementary school (1:1 scaled prototype and 1:5 scaled model).

 Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 3.03.54 PM

Figure 2d. The new model of rattan pole wooden school furniture design for elementary school (1:1 scaled prototype and 1:5 scaled model).

  1. Conclusion

In conducting suitable and effective training programmes, it is hoped that we have assisted the local community that facing critical sustainability of their business. We propose to develop strategies with other parties. These strategies are believed to give impacts directly to the targeted industry. In short, we must create an ecology of interdependency where this might allow the creation of necessity and recognition among the industry, for example, by exchanging skills/expertise and materials. Therefore, the ecology ensures interdependence among industries, as it is the nature of a business.

Acknowledgements

This project was funded by Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) Scheme (2015-2017) entitled “Pembangunan rekabentuk prototaip kerusi rotan ke arah nilai komersial sektor komoditi”.

References

Abdullah Al Rashid Ab. Hamid., Junaidy, D.W., Nor Hamizah Abdul Hamid, Muhamad Ezran Zainal Abdullah, Mohd Firuz Mohd Anwar, Mohd Firdaus Mohd Herrow. (2016). Rattan Furniture Design-Training Delivery Towards Commercial Value of Commodity Sector. In Abstract of 3rd National Conference on Knowledge Transfer, 30 Nov-1 Dec, 2016, Penang.

Afzan, Z. Z., Hadi, S. A., Shamsul, B. T., Zailina, H., Nada, I., & Rahmah, A. S. (2012, July). Mismatch between school furniture and anthropometric measures among primary school children in Mersing, Johor, Malaysia. In Network of Ergonomics Societies Conference (SEANES), 2012 Southeast Asian (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Junaidy, D. W., Kaner, J., Ioras, F. and Nagai, Y. (2015) Capturing characteristics of the conceptual ideation process of master craftspersons to inform design education: a comparative study of rural craft practitioners in Indonesia and in the UK, J. Design Research, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.395–423.

Junaidy, D. W., Nagai, Y., & Ihsan, M. (2013). Craftsmen versus designers: the difference of in-depth cognitive levels at the early stage of idea generation. In ICoRD’13 (pp. 223-234). Springer, India.

Sriwarno, A. B. (2009). Enhancing Local Designers Skill in Rattan Furniture Industries in Cirebon through Comprehensive-Design Approach Regarding Buyers’ Dependencies Prevention. Journal of Visual Art and Design, 3(2), 175-186.

Rosyidi, C. N., Susmartini, S., Purwaningrum, L. L., & Muraki, S. (2014). Mismatch analysis of elementary school desk and chair key characteristics in Indonesia. In Applied Mechanics and Materials (Vol. 660, pp. 1057-1061). Trans Tech Publications.

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RATTAN FURNITURE DESIGN-TRAINING DELIVERY TOWARDS COMMERCIAL VALUE OF COMMODITY SECTOR

Abdullah Al Rashid, A.H.(1), Deny Willy Junaidy(2), Nor Hamizah, A.H.(2), Muhamad Ezran, Z.A.(1), Mohd Firuz, M.A.(1), Mohd Firdaus, M.H(3)

(1) Faculty of Creative Technology and Heritage, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Bachok Campus, Locked Bag No.1, 16300 Bachok Kelantan
(2) Faculty of Architecture and Ekistics, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Bachok Campus, Locked Bag No.1, 16300 Bachok Kelantan
(3) Faculty of Art and Design, Universiti Selangor, Shah Alam Campus, Jalan Zirkon A7/A, Seksyen 7, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor

 

Citation:

Abdullah Al Rashid Ab. Hamid., Junaidy, D.W., Nor Hamizah Abdul Hamid, Muhamad Ezran Zainal Abdullah, Mohd Firuz Mohd Anwar, Mohd Firdaus Mohd Herrow. (2016). Rattan Furniture Design-Training Delivery Towards Commercial Value of Commodity Sector. In Abstract of 3rd National Conference on Knowledge Transfer, 30 Nov-1 Dec, 2016, Penang

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Abstract

Rattans are climbing palms whose bare stem is used in the construction of cane furniture and mats. It is a vine that grows in tropical forests and is used primarily in the furniture industry. In 2014, the export of rattan furniture in Malaysia is ranked lowest with a value of RM35.14 million compared with wooden furniture exports valued at RM6.32 billion. The decline of the export value will negatively affect the revenues of rattan furniture industry and result in the risk of job loss. There are three phases conducted in this Knowledge Transfer Programme, which are: design, production, and commercialization. It is believed that craftsmen and rattan producers who engaged in rattan production will receive an immediate benefit. This article is a perspective from industrial design academicians to cope with the rattan furniture design development issue. This perspective could be referred and adapted by rattan industry players in Malaysia to be more updated with current R&D process. This would enable them to compete with the international market. With proper design development process, rattan furniture producers will be able to produce more desirable products that could attract foreign buyers so it might increase the export value of rattan furniture.

Keywords: furniture design, rattan furniture industry, design process, knowledge- transfer program

1. Introduction

It has been known that rattan material is elastic yet very strong. Rattan is friendly to be processed with a bare hand, this implies of less technology investment is required in the production process. Rattan furniture design is very popular with a recliner or swing-type chair at the beginning of 1960 until the end of 1990. Rattan furniture existed in many regular houses in Malaysia. The design of Rattan furniture corresponds with the level of expertise of the makers or the producers. Besides of the skill level of the production of rattan furniture design, the selection of rattan species would also affect the rattan furniture design style. From early 2000 until now, rattan furniture export number keeps declining. This is allegedly caused by the fast changing of design trends According to Dr. Jalaluddin Harun, director-general of the Malaysian Timber Board (MTIB), ‘Design’ is one of the key elements and the key focus on all furniture products that targeted for commercializing. Design development should be the starting point for the product before it is ready to market. In order to produce more competitive products to increase the export value of rattan furniture, style, trend, and new design should be introduced to industry To respond the poor condition of Malaysian rattan furniture export that keeps declining. Our Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) is designed to set up some activities to challenge and stimulate creative resources from the key person in the rattan production. This programme is an educational support in a form of studio-type design-training to benefit craftsmen, producers.

We prepare three main activities:

  • 1st Design-training is to emphasize creativity that yields more unconventional application of rattan material.
  • 2nd Design-training is to pay attention to maintaining rattan unique characters furniture design.
  • 3rd Design-training is stressed on the advance and detail mock-up making and background study of trend and market analysis. Those three activities are intended to participants to familiarize the special characteristic of rattan that would gain their knowledge of developing

3rd Design-training is stressed on the advance and detail mock-up making and background study of trend and market analysis. Those three activities are intended to participants to familiarize the special characteristic of rattan that would gain their knowledge of developing the idea using mock-up model making. Prior to delivering the program, we carefully study the literature of previous similar activities of Design-training from overseas. This prior study is to provide us a ground understanding on the related issues of technical, cognitive, market, and trend as a primary background to conduct such activity. We finally concluded to apply a design-assistance-like situation referred to studio-based design tutorial. We apply a couching-clinic type where designer challenge and stimulate participants to produce more creative ideas by means of scale mock-up design.
The objectives of the programme are as follows:

  1. To deliver a technique of creative conceptualization process in rattan furniture design development.
  2. To raise the quality of production process and packaging design.
  3. To update with current trend and international market
  4. To maintain the spirit of rattan furniture expert/craftsmen as a symbol of national heritage towards modernization challenge.

2. Literature Review

Rattan is among the most important commodities of the country where the raw material is always considered valuable along with the results of other major timber. Rattan is known for its strength, elastic and light. It is considerably easy to bend and weave without losing its properties and strength (Eskak, 2014). In 2012, imports of rattan products globally neared $745 million (UNcomtrade, 2013). However, the export value of rattan furniture in Malaysia for the last decade has dropped from 50% compared to previous years (see, Table 1). MTIB stated rattan-based furniture has the lowest rate of exports in 2014, at the rate of RM35.14 million compared based furniture wooden furniture which is at rate RM6.32 billion. This seems caused by less desirable design and less knowledge in design development so that difficult for producers to enter and compete in the global market.

 

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 1.39.21 PMTable 1. Malaysia export of wooden and rattan furniture

(Source: MTIB and DOSM, 2012)

International Development Research Centre (IDRC) as described by W. Liese (2007) outline the strategy to enhance the use of the cane products: i.        Increase the use of technology to enable the manufacture of a variety of products produced with a higher-quality level, especially the increase in the surface finish to enhance the aesthetic value and the durability of rattan products.ii.      Colorless and improve the process of packaging used for the manufacture of wicker furniture; product packaging development and walls; iii.     Effective design development costs in addition to applying contemporary features.To be competitive in the current global market, rattan furniture manufacturers and makers have to adopt an innovative strategy that will provide them the ability to innovate and to be more productive. Apart from the issue of material and transportation cost, the lack of design skills in the production has brought disadvantage. New ideas are necessary for rattan furniture producers to improve their product. In order to understand user preference on physical needs and psychological needs. A research conducted on the psychological needs of consumers revealed that more consumers are willing to pay a higher price for the higher level of satisfaction (Lu & Wang, 2011). Unfortunately, most craftsmen are unwilling to invest and to learn about design and development.

Increase the use of technology to enable the manufacture of a variety of products produced with a higher-quality level, especially the increase in the surface finish to enhance the aesthetic value and the durability of rattan products;

Colorless and improve the process of packaging used for the manufacture of wicker furniture; product packaging development and walls; Effective design development costs in addition to applying contemporary features.To be competitive in the current global market, rattan furniture manufacturers and makers have to adopt an innovative strategy that will provide them the ability to innovate and to be more productive. Apart from the issue of material and transportation cost, the lack of design skills in the production has brought disadvantage. New ideas are necessary for rattan furniture producers to improve their product. In order to understand user preference on physical needs and psychological needs. A research conducted on the psychological needs of consumers revealed that more consumers are willing to pay a higher price for the higher level of satisfaction (Lu & Wang, 2011). Unfortunately, most craftsmen are unwilling to invest and to learn about design and development.

Effective design development costs in addition to applying contemporary features.To be competitive in the current global market, rattan furniture manufacturers and makers have to adopt an innovative strategy that will provide them the ability to innovate and to be more productive. Apart from the issue of material and transportation cost, the lack of design skills in the production has brought disadvantage. New ideas are necessary for rattan furniture producers to improve their product. In order to understand user preference on physical needs and psychological needs. A research conducted on the psychological needs of consumers revealed that more consumers are willing to pay a higher price for the higher level of satisfaction (Lu & Wang, 2011). Unfortunately, most craftsmen are unwilling to invest and to learn about design and development.

As stated by Abdullah (2010) the main purpose of an industrial design process is to meet the needs of the users through the understanding of the intangible and tangible elements of design. The influence of industrial design is unrestricted as industrial design services can be applied in most industries (Ulrich & Eppinger, 2000). The process of industrial design has been described as phases of activities that are primarily user-driven rather than technology driven (Gamser, et al., 2006; Walsh, 1996). This implies that industrial design process relates mainly to aspects between the user and the artifact rather than the relations internal to the artifact.

2.1 Creativity and design-training

In some cases, the teaching of design and creativity to craftsmen/conservative individuals can be a difficult task because they possess conservative viewpoints and lack an understanding of the creative process. However, scholars believe that creativity can be learned by instruction and training. Efforts have been made to provide direct instruction that involves the students’ cognitive abilities and processes (Ripple 1999). At a basic level, creativity and design-training hope to introduce widely known design methods. Gaps that may develop in the conceptual design process that occurs between craftsman/conservative individual and design trainers during a design-training program may correspond to the most obvious barrier to creative thinking: habit. The term habit refers to an individual’s well-learned ways of thinking and responding (Dodds, 1999). At the same time, a design-training program cannot simply rely on the typical conceptual design process because this process may serve as fixation (Junaidy, et. al 2015).

3. Methodology

We conducted a design workshop/training in which we offered design-training (in-studio design-training). The study was carried out using traditional design method that comprised of three (3) phases. We believe that to challenge participants with practical experience would help them gaining better knowledge on this particular issue. People who directly engaged in true experience would comprehend knowledge better than acquiring merely from reading or writing. Here, we approach an informal yet planned workshop.

3.1 Phase 1 – Presenting the idea (2D)

The percentage of the transfer of knowledge from the researcher estimate around 80%.

  1. Ideation Sketches
  2. Idea development
  3. Idea proposal
  4. Final design & detailing
  5. Mockup fabrication
  6. Technical drawing or package drawing
  7. GA drawing or full-scale drawing or tape drawing
  8. Panel presentation

3.2 Phase 2 – Fabrication processes (3D)

The percentage of the transfer of knowledge from the researcher estimate around 50%

  1. Material selection.
  2. Fabrication
  3. Model or prototype.

3.3 Phase 3 – Commercialization (Final Prototype)

The percentage of the transfer of knowledge from the researcher estimate around 10%

  1. Refine prototype
  2. Testing prototype
  3. Pattern
  4. Mass production

4. Results and Discussion

Knowledge Transfer Programme is a collaboration program with MTIB to infuse and enhance rattan furniture industry design skills with the latest development of world rattan design. In this programme, we separate this program with three methods of transfer of knowledge. The purpose of these three phases is to introduce rattan furniture producers with proper design and development process that widely used. We divide as the followings:

  • The first transfer phase is a general knowledge of rattan,
  • The second transfer phase is about design theory,
  • The third transfer phase is a hands-on skill.

 

4.1 The first phase

The first workshop is intended to transfer complete resource of rattan knowledge that held within a day. The objective of this first workshop is to provide a full information and issues from the past, present, and future of rattan design across the world. This is expected to trigger the industry so that they more enthusiast, be opened, and challenged to practice the current method of design development. Further, This workshop also discussed and presented a comprehensive study of rattan furniture Design in Malaysia, Europe, and Southeast Asia. Through a complete resource of rattan, the potential would definitely convince the recipients from rattan industry to reconsider and revitalize their existence in order to keep up with current development.

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 1.42.27 PM

Figure 1. Presenting the idea

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 1.41.45 PM

Figure 2. Ideation

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 1.41.06 PM

Figure 3. Idea development

 

4.2 The second phase

In this second phase, we target local designers to acquire theory and knowledge of utilizing the characteristic of rattan materials. The execution of the design process begins with an identification of the suitable design that is to be adapted. A real scale mock-up will help them to figure it if any of difficulty occurred. A conceptual design of a modern rattan furniture, however, must not deviate from its original essence. A final design idea is selected based on acceptable rationales and justifications. A validation exercise is also conducted on the design by potential consumers and experts. Once the final design is selected, the process is continued to a refinement of the design to further enhance the features to the overall rattan furniture design. For this workshop, Industry players were targeted as the subject, but some academicians were also involved

During the workshop, participants were challenged to explore the specific character of rattan that difficult to accomplish to other material such as wood and metal. We find that many of the participants treated rattan as wood, this probably happened because either wood or fabricated board is the most familiar to their experience. From this phase, it was quite clear that designers did not feel easy to disassociate rattan from wood; this unsurprisingly limited them to achieve or explore more unique form, shape or creative idea. In fact, rattan is known for its elastic and flexible characteristic, this character might help one to achieve desirable appearance, but on the other hand, it might be a barrier for certain idea as well. However, this second training phase is supposed to push out participants’ sense to be able to respond rattan characteristic. Besides participants were requested to comprehend the special character of rattan, they have been also reminded on what left during the idea development. Participants completely immersed on the technicality issue and the design styling, none of the participants matter to market-related issue. This means trend and consumers issue is completely detached from the design process. Further, this second phase workshop is meant to lead participants to consider the market issue and to apply the characteristic afterward. That issue was underlined throughout the design workshop since that issue is very critical in regards to a further stage of manufacturing the product.

At the second phase of design workshop, all participants utilized a pseudo material (metal wire) as an example to approach with a scale model. However, using real material is supposed to an easier participant to sense the characteristic of the rattan. The hands-on method would help designers to understand more of the possibility and limitation of the material before entering the commercialization stage.

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Figure 4. Scale Mock-Up

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Figure 5. Design review and refinement

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Figure 6a. The Third phase of design-training delivery of KTP Flagship Project

4.3 The third phase

The KTP third design-training has just been conducted. The KTP third design-training is the ultimate act of this Programme. At this third phase, we emphasize on the advance detail mock-up making and put attention on trend and market analysis. The workshop is planned as the ultimate and final workshop that brings up all advance technique and latest knowledge to the participants (See, Fig. 6a, 6b, 6c).

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Figure 6b. The third workshop emphasizes on the advance technique and latest rattan knowledge to the participants

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Figure 6c. The third workshop emphasizes on the advance technique and latest rattan knowledge to the participants

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Figure 6d. The works of participants of the Third workshop

  1. Discussion on Categorizing the Mock-up Modeling Methods in Rattan Chair Design-Training

The overseas government has begun to focus on rural industry development because of its potential for an employment opportunity and to maintain national and cultural identities. They implemented technical assistance programs, such as design-training, to improve local master craftsman’ skills and creativity levels. However, there is less resource available of a proper deliverable design-training method that emphasizes specific circumstances and resources of the training. Prior to the implementation of the KTP, we have conducted study recording and categorizing few mock-up modeling methods in chair design-training, specifically on rattan industry. Studies were conducted through active visits by direct contact from rattan practitioners outside Malaysia. The categorization has listed over few specific methods that have been delivered in some rattan design workshop training at few countries (e.g., Indonesia, Denmark, Germany). Our categorization is based on common issues that correspond to the implementation of rattan design workshop. The followings are common issues has been identified:

  • Target (T1),
  • Resource (R),
  • User (U),
  • Skill (S),
  • Time (T2).

Hereafter is abbreviated as TRUST. Target (T1) is the objective of the workshop or training, this corresponds to the learning outcome of the program. This can be an introduction, technical know-how or design know-how. Resource (R) is a condition of the availability of rattan materials and specific tools. User (U) means of the subject or the recipient of a design-training, it is composed of participants, e.g. design student/ academician, master craftsman/ industry, and novice. Skill (S) is so much related to the participant’s prior knowledge in relation to rattan production, it can be a design, business, craftsmanship and production knowledge. Time (T2) is the time allocated for the workshop, hours is the shortest time allocation, and days referred to 2-7 days, and lastly, months which implies of more solid knowledge of both, design creativity and rattan design technicality.

The categorization of TRUST as common issues correspond to the practice of rattan design workshop would help us to select the appropriate method to be delivered in a rattan design-training that held in a different location and different circumstances. When each of those common issues of TRUST shows some limited condition or resource, the TRUST chart may be useful to address the appropriate mock-up modeling methods to be delivered at a rattan chair design-training (see, Table 2.)

Table 2. TRUST chart identified common issues during a rattan design workshop (Authors)

  COMMON ISSUE CAT METHOD
1 Target (T1) A. Flexible Pole

Mock-up modeling method utilizing small diameter rattan, or substituted material e.g., PVC pipe.

 

B. Cable/Wiring

Mock-up modeling method utilizing metal wire plastics

 

C. Straw

Mock-up modeling method utilizing practical and affordable plastic straw

  Design know-how A
  Technical Know-how A/B
  Introduction C
2 Resource (R)
  Rattan Available A/B
  Tool Available A/B
3 User (U)
  Master craftsman A/B
  Student/Academician A/B/C
  Industry B/C
  Novice C
4 Skill (S)
  Design A
  Craftsmanship A/B
  Production B/C
  Business/Management C
5 Time (T2)
  Months A
  Days A/B
  Hours C

We have listed some specific methods that have been delivered in some rattan design workshop training overseas and categorized as three methods as follows:

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 1.57.12 PM

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Figure 7a, 7b and 7c.

Method A (Flexible Pole)

Mock-up modeling method utilizing small diameter rattan or substituted similar material e.g., PVC pipe.

(Source: (a). The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

Schools of Architecture, Design, and Conservation training in Cirebon (2014), (b). Pusat Inovasi Rotan Indonesia (PIRNAS) and (c). Designer Dispatch Service/DDS2016, Ministry of Industry, Indonesia).

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 1.59.53 PM

Figure 8.

Method B (Cable/Wiring)

Mock-up modeling method utilizing metal wire/ plastics (Source: (a). The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

Schools of Architecture, Design, and Conservation during a design training in Cirebon, Indonesia, 2014)

Screen Shot 2017-10-27 at 1.58.39 PM

Figure 10. Method C. Straw

Mock-up modeling method utilizing practical and affordable plastic straws

(Source: (a). Rattan Designer Cirebon/RADEC, 2015)

6. Conclusion

There are hindrances to revitalize rattan design development in industry, the main hindrance is very less support has been given to promote rattan as national potential and heritage. Learning from the success from other countries in market competition Government, University, Industry, and Community are required to take extra effort to promote rattan as valuable resources. This can also be infusing rattan knowledge in the content of educational activities as curriculum, seminar, workshop, competition, training, branding, etc. Support from government, university, and industry and also the community would ensure the future success. This program should be implemented consistently and be maintained its sustainability. Industry must consider of setting-up an in-house professional designer or R&D team to be able to achieve more desirable products towards commercialization on the international market.

 

Acknowledgements

This project was funded by Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) Scheme entitle “Pembangunan rekabentuk prototaip kerusi rotan ke arah nilai komersial sektor komoditi”.

 

References

Abdullah, M. (2010). A Research Overview of Industrial Design Framework for Modula Product Design“. Proceeding of the Design 2010. Vol. 1. ISBN 978-953-7738-04-4.

Dodds, Rebecca A, and Steven M. Smith, 1999. Fixation. In Encyclopedia of Creativity, edited by Mark A. Runco and Steven R. Pritzker, Vol. 1: 725-728, San Diego, London: Academic Press.

Eskak, E. (2014). Kajian pengembangan mebel rotan di Sumbawa Barat. Dinamika Kerajinan dan Batik, Vol.31, No.1.

Gamser, et al., (2006). Design and Competitive Advantage in Technology-driven Sectors: The Role of Usability and Aesthetics in Dutch IT Companies”. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 18 (5), 561-580.

Junaidy, D. W., Kaner, J., Ioras, F., and Nagai, Y. (2015) Capturing characteristics of the conceptual ideation process of master craftspersons to inform design education: a comparative study of rural craft practitioners in Indonesia and in the UK, J. Design Research, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.395–423.

Liese, W. (2007). Challenges and constraints in rattan processing and utilization. Rattan Current Research Issues and Prospects for Conservation and Sustainable Development, 35-42.

Lu, L. and Wang, Y. (2011) Research on the value of Industrial Design Innovation based on Characteristic of the Modern Consumer Demand. IEEE. ISBN 978-1-61284-109-0

Ripple, Richard E. (1999). Teaching creativity. In Encyclopedia of Creativity, edited by Mark A. Runco and Steven R. Pritzker Vol. 2: 629-638, San Diego, London: Academic Press.

Ulrich, K.T. and Eppinger, S.D. (2000). ”Product Design and Development (Second Edition)“.McGraw – Hill Higher Education. Boston, U.S.A

UN Comtrade, 2013 (retrieved from http://comtrade.un.org/db/ )

Walsh, V. (1996). “Design, Innovation and the Boundaries of the Firm”. Research Policy. 25(4), 509-529.

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Penelitian dan pengembangan desain ini dibiayai ITB melalui 
Program Riset Unggulan – Pusat Penelitian Poduk Budaya dan Lingkungan LPPM ITB

Peneliti:

Budi Isdianto, M.Sn.
Deny Willy J, PhD.
Omar Handojo, M.Sn.

Asisten Peneliti: Krissandi, Muhammad Alfath, Fajrin Ramdani

Kerjasama:
Perkumpulan Untuk Pengmbangan Usaha Kecil (PUPUK)
Yayasan Apikayu
Dinas Perindustrian dan Perdagangan Kota Palangkaraya

  

DESAIN #1 (RATTANIMAL PUZZLE)
Konsep dari desain Rattanimal adalah permainan merangkai (puzzle) yang menstimulasi kreativitas anak. Menggunakan teori Bisociation dan Concept Blending karya (Koestler, 1974; Nagai, et al., 2009) bahwa menggabungkan dua konsep yang berbeda atau bertabrakan dapat menghasilkan konsep yang tidak familiar dan berpotensi menjadi konsep yang kreatif. Maka Rattanimal mengembangkan puzzle yang wujudnya justeru menjadi rancu sebagai sebuah binatang yang konkrit, burung seperti ikan yang dapat melata atau ular seperti kerbau yang dapat terbang. Hal ini memungkinkan anak yang memainkan menjadi berpikir abstrak dan eksploratif, hal seperti ini diyakini mendorong proses berpikir kreatif seseorang.                     

 

DESAIN #2 (CATUR ROTAN/RATTAN CHESS SET)
Konsep mainan catur berbahan rotan didasari pertimbangan, tingginya limbah potongan-potongan rotan berukuran tanggung (10-15 cm) yang sulit dimanfaatkan dalam industri mebel rotan. Potongan-potongan rotan tersebut biasanya kemudian dibakar. Produk catur rotan dihasilkan dengan utama teknik bubut. Seluruh bidak di rancangn dengan pola dasar yang sama dan cenderung menghasilkan bentuk yang primitif sehingga sangat memudahakan proses pembuatannya. Untuk bagian alas catur, keunikannya adalah membuat alas dari kepingan rotan yang dihubungkan dan diperkuat dengan jalinan tali.  

   
 

DESAIN #3 (MAINAN PAUD/EDC RATTAN TOYS)
Konsep mainan PAUD ini membuat mainan edukatif yang memanfaatkan karakter rotan dan sulit disubstitusi oleh kayu. Karakteristik mainan PAUD ini menghasilkan bentuk dan konfigurasi yang unik, yang tidak sulit dicapai menggunakan material kayu.

   
    
   

TEKNIK PRES LAMINASI BAMBU TUTUL

Program Pelatihan Mebel Bambu Tutul di Desa Marikurubu, Tongele, Ternate, Maluku Utara, 2015
Program Direktorat IKM Wilayah 3, Kemenperin

Instruktur: Deny Willy Junaidy
Ide Desain: Dodi Mulyadi
Pelaksana: PT. Permata Kamandaya

Pelatihan Desain Bambu Tutul di Desa Marikurubu, Perkebunan Cengkeh Afo di Lereng Gunung Gamalama, Ternate telah lama difasilitasi oleh Direktorat IKM Kemenperin. Pada pelatihan kali ini, dipilih 5 perajin ahli (master craftsmen) dari sentra kerajinan setempat, dimaksudkan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan baru yang lebih maju. Teknik yang diperkenalkan adalah teknik pres laminasi bambu dengan isian kayu hitam. Teknik laminasi bambu tutul dua sisi dengan pengisi bagian dalam dari kayu hitam menghasilkan tampilan yang khas menyerupai susunan kue wafer atau biskuit dengan permukaan seolah bertabur bercak coklat. Teknik tradisional pembuatan seperti krepyak/palupuh di Ternate lebih lazim disebut teknik cincang. Prosesnya dilakukan spt mencincang bagian dalam bambu hingga dapat menghasilkan lembaran krepayak yang cukup lebar untuk kemudian di pres dengan menggunakan catok (clamp).

Banyak sekali kesulitan yang ditemui dalam proses pelatihan kali ini. Mereka sangat mahir dalam pengolahan mebel bambu, khususnya mengunakan 3 alat utama seperti gergaji sebagai pemotong, golok sebagai pembelah dan pisau raut sebagai peraut atau membuat iratan. Namun, dengan teknik baru laminasi mereka dihadapi persoalan untuk mahir mengolah bidang dengan permukaan lurus, rata dan menyiku yang tidak lazim bagi mereka, sehingga nampak proses meraut bambu/kayu menggunakan mesin planner dan mesin amplas kayu menjadi tidak mudah bagi mereka.

Proses pembahanan perautan bambu menjadi bilah bambu serta bilah kayu hitam  membutuhkan waktu sekitar 4 hari, proses perangkaan dan penyetelan menjadi semakin rumit, karena teknik konstruksi sambungan untuk lap joint atau mortise dan tenon (purus) joint betul-betul berbeda dengan teknik konstruksi bambu. Contohnya, penggunaan pahat kayu untuk membuat mortise (lubang untuk purus) tidak digunakan, para perajin lebih memilih mencungkil atau meraut lubang mortise dengan menggunakan pisau raut. Sehingga profil lubang mortise menghasilkan sudut melengkung , bukan menyiku.

Teknik lain yang diperkenalkan adalah konstruksi moduler kursi dan meja bambu tutul dengan sistem knockdown dengan pertimbangan kemudahan untuk pengiriman produk keluar pulau.

Secara keseluruhan, 3 produk berupa, Kursi Bambu Knock-down, Meja Knock-down, dan sebuah lampu dinding berhasil di selesaikan dengan hasil yang unik seperti keindahan Pulau Ternate, Pulau Tidore, Gunung Gamalama dan Danau Tolire yang megah.

Terakhir, Kami menamakan desain laminasi ini dengan laminasi ‘Wafer’.
Semoga kelak saya kembali ke tanah Ternate yang sangat indah.

   
                                       
Keindahan Pulau Ternate

   
     

BERGURU DESAIN MEBEL ROTAN DENGAN YUZURU YAMAKAWA

Oleh: Deny Willy Junaidy

**Untuk mengenang Yuzuru Yamakawa dan seluruh staff di Yamakawa Rattan industry di Cirebon**

Mata Kuliah (MK) Desain Mebel I, II dan III merupakan mata kuliah minor kompetensi di Program Studi Desain Interior FSRD ITB. Dengan bobot 4 sks dari tiap perancangan Desain Mebel I, II, III, menjadikan MK Desain Mebel padat dengan konten teori maupun praktek. MK Desain Mebel III merupakan klimaks dari rangkaian kuliah perancangan desain mebel. Desain Mebel III mengkaji problem desain manusia akan sarana untuk beristirahat dengan cara duduk. Peserta dibekali pengetahuan standar ergonomi, bahan dan teknologi konstruksi dengan studi kasus.

Seorang pengajar senior, Dr. Prabu Wardono secara konsisten memperkenalkan material rotan sebagai studi kasus dalam MK Desain Mebel III. Hingga kini sudah 14 tahun MK Desain Mebel III di program studi desain interior ITB memperkenalkan material rotan dalam perancangan mebel. Saya bersama asisten muda lainnya menjadi asisten MK Desain Mebel III sejak tahun 2000 hingga tahun 2009, sebelum akhirnya kami sama-sama berangkat untuk studi lanjut. Kini, konten rotan dalam perancangan mebel telah terpupuk dengan baik.

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Setiap tahunnya, kurang lebih 35 mahasiswa peserta MK Desain Mebel III yang dibimbing. Secara kasar, 14 tahun x +/-35 mahasiswa = +/-490 mahasiswa yang telah dibimbing untuk merancang desain mebel rotan. Bersamaan dengan 14 tahun tersebut, kira-kira selama itu pulalah para dosen pembimbing bersama mahasiswa berguru setiap tahunnya kepada desainer mebel rotan ternama, Yuzuru Yamakawa di Cirebon. Menariknya, setiap kali kunjungan ke Yuzuru Yamakawa, setiap kali itu pulalah Yuzuru Yamakawa antusias mengajarkan teknik mendesain rotan, lengkap dengan tips-tips dan kebiasaan beliau. Bukan hanya itu, beliau membuka seluruh dokumen manuskrip desain dan gambar kerja mebel rotan karya beliau! Seluruh mahasiswa dipersilahkan dengan bebas memfoto dokumen desain tersebut. Disetiap kali kunjungan, masing-masing kepala divisi spt; pembahanan, sample making, R&D, produksi, finishing, marketing menjelaskan tanggungjawab dan peran mereka. Kunjungan tahunan tersebut kemudian diakhiri dengan factory visit. Seluruh pengalaman tersebut tentu menjadi pengetahuan yang solid tentang desain mebel rotan bagi mahasiswa. Di akhir kuliah, mereka diwajibkan menghasilkan, prototipe 1:1 desain mebel rotan (easy chair).

Berikut merupakan sari pengalaman yang saya peroleh selama hampir 10 tahun belajar dari sang maestro Yuzuru Yamakawa:

Kertas Milimeter Block dan Sketsa
Sebelum menjadi shop drawing, sketsa awal desain Yamakawa diverifikasi oleh divisi R&D dan sample making. Di ujung seluruh proses desain, dihasilkan prototip, gambar mal 1:1, dan jig, siap untuk diproduksi. Walaupun sketsa awal Yamakawa belum mendetail, namun hampir seluruh sketsa beliau yang dibundel dan digoreskan diatas kertas milimeter block A3 padat dengan potongan-potongan gambar detail disana sini. Kertas milimeter block memang nampak memudahkannya membandingkan proporsi dari berbagai tampak. Saya perhatikan 2 gambar yang utama adalah tampak samping dan tampak muka dengan skala 1:10, dan 1 perspektif. Sedikit sekali saya temukan sketsa untuk tampak atas. Gambar tampak samping nampak selalu menjadi fokus utama sehingga seringkali berisi banyak bekas-bekas guratan. Demikian, ketika beliau memberikan arahan dan contoh, sketsa tampak samping selalu menjadi penekanan dengan guratan-guratan yang efisien. Kedalaman alas duduk (seat depth) dan sandaran punggung (back rest) selalu digoreskan dengan sudut dan ketinggian yang kira-kira sama. Baru kemudian, sandaran lengan (arm rest), kaki dihubungkan dengan konstruksi kaki belakang yang banyak mendapatkan perhatian dengan goresan-goresan kurva. Saya perhatikan tarikan kurva dari bagian arm rest nampak berupaya beradaptasi atau mencari penyesuaian terhadap bagian belakang seperti rangka kaki belakang atau sandaran belakang. Sehingga saya berkesimpulan, goresan-goresan arm rest adalah goresan utama dari desain beliau, kurva-kurva yang dihasilkan dari arm rest merupakan proses desain yang paling signifikan, sketsa arm rest menjadi dialog terciptanya struktur, dialog terciptanya pengencang kurva X dan U, support structure khas mebel rotan.

Keeleganan garis-garis kurva baik pada kaki, arm rest, back rest, support X dan U terlihat wajar, pantas dan tepat. Wajar karena tidak menonjol; pantas karena karakternya tidak hilang; dan tepat karena tak dapat disubstitusi dengan bahan lain.

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Foto field study ketika belajar langsung kepada Yuzuru Yamakawa dan seluruh tim di pabriknya di Cirebon, sejak tahun 2001 hingga kini.

Dalam sketsanya, Yamakawa menghimbau bahwa tension, derajat kurva tidak pernah menonjol menjadi aksen, atau unik sendiri, melainkan kesederhanaan simetrikal dan lengkungan yang secukupnya. Nampaknya pandangannya itu, membuatnya bijaksana memandang struktur atau support seperti X atau U untuk selalu hadir. Sehingga baik support X atau U justeru menjadi keutamaan dari desain beliau, terutama support X. Di beberapa desainnya, support digantikan dengan membentuk kurva abjad Y.
Sekampiun Yamakawa pun, hal-hal yang sangat teknis, termasuk support construction juga menerima kontribusi dari tim R&D, sample maker dan bahkan penganyam. Ini yang membuat seluruh karya Yamakawa kaya dengan detail, karena setiap divisi adalah mata rantai berkaitan.

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Beberapa karya Yuzuru Yamakawa yang dikenal dengan keotentikannya.

Mal orang-orangan
Satu alat bantu yang menarik adalah dimensional human body template produksi staedtler model no: 976. Sesekali ia tunjukan tidak saja untuk mengkonfirmasi ergonomi duduk, namun juga postur mebel terhadap pengguna. Ia bercerita, bahwa mal orang-orangan untuk postur Jepang telah berubah dari tahun ketahun. “Mengacu pada mal staedtler, maka selama satu dekade, maka rata-rata postur orang Jepang telah naik 2 hingga 3 centimeter!”

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Kini banyak desainer muda berbakat yang mengangkat material rotan dalam karya mereka. Desain-desainnya menarik, dan nampak kita masih dalam perjalanan menyesuaikan diri dengan kerabat sendiri: rotan. Dalam kedangkalan ilmu saya, banyak dari karya kita baru pada tahap ‘mendesain mebel dengan rotan.’ Masih panjang perjalanan untuk sampai pada level ‘mendesain mebel rotan’ seperti Yuzuru Yamakawa.

Gap literasi bagi pemula (novice) merupakan situasi yang wajar dalam destinasi menuju kepiawaian. Alam (realm) proses kreatif individu yang sudah piawai dijelaskan oleh Csikszentmihalyi (psikolog dalam kognisi kreatif) dalam bukunya yang tersitasi puluhan ribu kali. Csikszentmihaly memutuskan hidup dan tinggal satu atap bersama individu-individu kreatif ternama selama bertahun-tahun untuk penelitiannya. Mengutip apa yang ia tulis, seorang ‘virtuoso’ sepenuhnya terisap dalam flow ketika tengah berkarya. Flow adalah peristiwa khas ketika individu mencapai state of mood, aha effect, tahapan ‘asyik’. Artinya, ketika terisap dalam flow proses kreatif, yang ada hanya enjoyment, fun, dan rasa penasaran. Peristiwa ini sangat internally-driven, bukan karena termotivasi iming-iming, tapi begitu ‘asyik ngalir’ yang distilahkan dengan ‘autotelic’.

Setelah sekian lama menyaksikan cara Yuzuru Yamakawa menggoreskan ide-idenya. Saya yakin kemampuannya merespon material dan wujud sudah melebur, sehingga setiap tarikan garisnya adalah kebijaksanaan (wisdom) merespon esensi material.

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Beberapa full-scaled prototype mebel rotan mahasiswa mahasiswi peserta MK Desain Mebel III DI di program studi desain interior FSRD ITB, tahun 2008. Foto terakhir adalah eksibisi seluruh prototipe dan diskusi dengan tokoh industri dan peneliti mebel rotan.
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Catatan:
* penulis tidak memiliki hak atas desain dari foto-foto diatas.
* Seluruh desain dimiliki oleh desainer yang bersangkutan (Yuzuru Yamakawa, mahasiswa desain interior ITB, dll).
* Seluruh gambar tidak dimaksudkan untuk kepentingan komersial.

PELATIHAN DESAIN & FINISHING MEBEL DI SENTRA MEBEL KAYU SUMEDANG (Paseh, Congeang)

Pelatih: Muhammad Ihsan & Deny Willy Junaidy

Kegiatan ini didanai oleh Dinas Agroindustri, Provinsi Jawa Barat
Bekerjasama dengan tim pelatih dari FSRD ITB dan tim Propan Raya

Pelatihan kali ini merupakan pelaksanaan program yang ke-lima kali. Tujuan utamanya masih menekankan kemampuan membuat keputusan desain, baik dalm hal prinsip desain (komposisi, irama, dll). Sentra mebel kayu Sumedang sendiri telah lahir sebelum 1970, sentra ini tergolong tumbuh stabil, namun disayangkan, budaya kerja di sentra mebel kayu Sumedang masih lemah. Ditandai dengan sikap memperlakukan bahan yang tidak hati-hati, serta terbiasa bekerja seolah tergesa-gesa. Dengan usia sentra yang lebih dari 40 tahun, sayangnya lagi sentra mebel kayu sumedang hanya dikenal sebagai penghasil kursi inpresan, atau mebelair kayu untuk SD inpres yang identik dengan bangku murah, kecil, dan alakadarnya. Oleh karenanya, beberapakali pelatihan yang diselenggarakan di sentra ini diorientasikan pada model-model yang tidak lazim bagi mereka, termasuk dalam hal finishing.

Berikut adalah foto-foto kegiatan hasil pelatihan desain dan finishing pada sentra mebel kayu Sumedang:

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MESIN PERONTOK DURI DAN PENGIRAT BATANG SALAK UNTUK PENINGKATAN KAPASITAS PRODUKSI KERAJINAN DAHAN SALAK

Oleh Deny Willy

MESIN PERONTOK DURI DAN PENGIRAT BATANG SALAK UNTUK PENINGKATAN KAPASITAS PRODUKSI KERAJINAN DAHAN SALAK :
Penguatan Komunitas baru Perajin Batang Salak Desa Cineam, Tasikmalaya.
Peneliti: Deny Willy Junaidy, PhD., Oemar Handojo, M.Sn.
Yayasan Apikayu, ITB, IKM Manikmaya

PROGRAM INSENTIF
PERCEPATAN DIFUSI DAN PEMANFAATAN IPTEK
Kementerian Negara Riset dan Teknologi

Fokus Bidang Kegiatan (pilih yang sesuai):
a) ketahanan pangan; (teknologi untuk membantu produksi kerajinan (sekaligus mempertahankan komoditas pangan dari penebangan masif.

Pendahuluan
Pembuatan mesin ini cenderung memiliki proses eksperimen yang tinggi hal ini juga disebabkan kurangnya publikasi atau pustaka khususnya dalam bidang permesinan yang mengkhususkan pada mesin untuk kerajinan. lebih khusus lagi yang mengintervensi kemampuan keterampilan tangan.

Ringkasan
Kegiatan telah melaksanakan identifikasi masalah, khususnya dalam upaya meningkatkan kapasitas produksi dan standarisasi mutu. Berdasarkan identifikasi tersebut dibutuhakan mekanisme untuk membantu proses pengolahan bahan baku dasar dari batang menjadi bilah/iratan dengan lebih mudah dan cepat. Solusinya adalah membuat mesin pengirat yang dapat mengirat (membuat bilahan) serta menghaluskan dalam satu mesin yang sama. Duri pada batang terlebih dahulu di tebas kasar, perontokan atau penghilangan bekas duri dilakukan lebih lanjut melalui mesin.

Prinsip kerja mesin adalah membuat tarikan berputar terhadap batang salak untuk menghilangkan bekas duri serta pengulitan kulit dahan salak. Proses putaran akan dilengkapi dengan mesin hampelas di dua titik, atas dan bawah untuk menjamin perontokan dan pengulitan menjangkau semua permukaan batang. Ketika batang telah bersih dari duri dan kulit, kemudian batang dibelah dua untuk memudahkan proses iratan/pembilahan melalui mata pisau yang telah diatur. Masing-masing bilahan/iratan langsung ditekan melalui penhimpit untuk melalui proses penghampelasan akhir dari sisi atas, bawah, serta kiri dan kanan. Sesuai dimensi yang dikehendaki. Hingga saat ini baru dilakukan uji alternatif mekanisme pembelahan/iratan serta sistem penghampelasan yang paling sempurna jangkauannya terhadap kontur bilah yang beragam.

Dua alternatif sistem pembelahan/iratan yang telah dibuat adalah dengan menggunakan mata pisau cutter dengan kendala pengaturan keseragaman dimensi yag belum tepat dan sistem penarikan yang cenderung berat. Berikutnya membuat sistem roda gigi berputar dan berlapis untuk memudahkan tarikan pada batang sehingga proses pemasukan batang (feeder) dapat menjadi lebih ringan.

Sistem Kerja Alat
Pada alat yang dikembangkan terdapat 4 langkah proses yaitu proses penghalusan kulit luar, proses pembelahan, proses pengiratan, dan proses pemisahan bagian hati dahan salak. Keempat proses ini dicoba satu per satu, dan kemudian dirancang alatnya untuk tiap proses. Apabila dimungkinkan keempat tahap proses tersebut digabungkan menjadi satu alat yang kompak, tetapi apabila tidak memungkinkan akan dibuat alat secara terpisah.

Dari percobaan proses pembelahan dengan cutter masih menemui kendala yaitu untuk dahan salak yang kering diperlukan penarik yang kuat. Percobaan kedua digunakan gergaji putar, tetapi masih dalam tahap pembuatan rotor gergaji. Kami melakukan beberapa simulasi mekanisme kerja mesin mulai dari lingkaran batang utuh hingga pembelahan, pengiratan hingga penghalusan. Pada proses simulasi pertama (pisau 1) penentuan mata pisau 1 menemui beberapa kendala dibutuhkannya tenaga tarikan yang terlalu besar untuk menarik bilah. Selanjutnya pada simulasi kedua (pisau 2) merupakan perbaikan dari pola mata pisau berotasi, yag sekaligus memudahkan tarikan pada batang.

Simulasi juga membahas kemungkinan-kemungkinan tipe putaran hampelas yang dapat menjangkau seluruh permukaan berkulit dan bekas duri secara lebih baik. Melalui diskusi disimpulkan pula bahwa sistem penghampelasan pada mesin hampelas rotan (Single Belt Round Rod Sander) dapat diadopsi pada mesin ini.

Penampang
Gambar 1. Penampang pemanfaatan iratan dahan salak

Fact Figure salak

Gambar 2. Eksplorasi karakter dahan salak

Pembelah bilah Pengikisan bilahGambar 3. Gambar 1. Eksperimentasi pembelah (Cutting slide) dan pengiris/pengikis

2 1 3 4 5 14 Gambar 4. Rancangan desain mesin

DSCN8561 DSCN8545 DSCN8536 DSCN8540 Gambar 5. Prototipe mesin perontok dan pengirat dahan salak

Kontribusi Foto dan NarasiGambar 6. Produk akhir tIkar dan kerai Dahan salak